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Incidence of elevated procalcitonin and presepsin levels after severe trauma: a pilot cohort study

Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan

Summary

Procalcitonin (PCT) and presepsin (PSEP) are useful biomarkers for diagnosing sepsis; however, elevated PCT and PSEP levels may be observed in conditions other than sepsis. We hypothesised that PCT and PSEP levels could increase after severe traumatic injuries. Trauma patients with an Injury Severity Score of ≥16 from October 2013 to September 2015 were enrolled in our study. We examined PCT and PSEP levels and their positive rates on days 0 and 1. PCT and PSEP levels on days 0 and 1 were compared. Risk factors for increasing sepsis biomarker levels were identified by multivariate logistic regression analyses. In this study, 75 patients were included. PCT levels on days 0 and 1 were 0.1±0.4 and 1.8±6.3 ng/ml, respectively (P=0.02). PSEP levels on days 0 and 1 were 221±261 and 222±207 pg/ml, respectively (P=0.98). As per multivariate logistic regression analyses, packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion was the only independent risk factor for higher PCT levels on day 1 (P=0.04). Using PCT to diagnose sepsis in trauma patients on day 1 requires caution. PRBC transfusion was found to be a risk factor for increasing PCT levels. On the other hand, PSEP levels were not affected by trauma during the early phases.

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